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История на звукозаписа (http://www.historyofrecording.com/)

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Abbey Road Studios, 1960


The Swinging Blue Jeans perform The Hippy Hippy Shake in a mocked-up session recording for the cameras. This was almost certainly made in Spring 1964, just after the Blue Jeans actually taped their version of the 1959 hit song.

The scene appears to have been filmed inside Studio Three, with engineering legend Norman Smith at the recording desk. Smith, of course, powered a great many of the Beatles' recording sessions.

The clip also shows us a rare colour glimpse of the Ready Steady Go television studio.


The Making Of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band ( Full )

Documentary on the making of The Beatles Album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.


Edited by Parni_Valjak
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Record Manufacturing "Command Performance" 1942 RCA Stamping Records Milton Cross


Making phonograph records, from wax masters to shellac 78s.

Narrated by Milton Cross, author of "Milton Cross' Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music."

Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization.
For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the master disc ..
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft wax, and later a harder lacquer was used...
Mass producing
The soft master known as a lacquer would then be silvered using the same process as the silvering of mirrors...
This silver coating provided the conductive layer to carry the current for the subsequent nickel plating electroplated with a metal, commonly a nickel alloy...
Most factories transferred the Master Matrix after an initial flash of Nickel in a slow warm nickel electroplating bath...
This and all subsequent metal copies were known as matrices. When this metal master was removed from the lacquer (master), it would be a negative master or Master Matrix, since it was a negative copy of the lacquer. (In the UK, this was called the master; note the difference from soft master/lacquer disc above). In the earliest days the negative master was used as a mold to press records sold to the public, but as demand for mass production of records grew, another step was added to the process.

After removing the silver deposit and passifing, the metal master was then electroplated (electroformed) to create metal positive matrices, or "mothers". From these positives, stampers (negative) would be formed. Producing mothers was similar to electroforming Masters, except the time allowed to turn-up to full current was much shorter and the heavier Mothers could be produced in as little as one hour and stampers (145 grams) could be made in 45 minutes.
Prior to plating either the Nickel Master or Nickel Mother it needed to be passified to prevent the next matrix adhering to the previous matrix. There were several methods used, EMI favoured the fairly difficult Albumin soaking method where as CBS Records and Phillips used the Electrolytic method. Soaking in a di-chromate solution was another popular method, however this method risked contaminating the Nickel solution with chrome. The electrolytic method was similar to the standard electrolytic cleaning method except the cycles were reversed finishing the process with Matrix as the anode. This also cleaned the surface of the matrix about to be copied.
After separating from the Master a new mother was polished with a fine abrasive to remove or at least round-off the microscopic "horns" at the top of the grooves, produced by the cutting lathe. This allowed the vinyl to flow better in the pressing stage and reduced the non-fill problem.
Stampers produced from the mothers after separating were chrome plated to provide a hard stain-free surface. Each stamper was next centre punched, methods used included aligning the final locked groove over three pins or tapping the edge while rotating under the punch until the grooves could be seen (through a microscope) to move constantly towards the centre. Either method was quite skilled and took much effort to learn. The centre punch not only punched a hole but formed a lip which would be used to secure the stamper into the press. The stamper was next trimmed to size and the back sanded smooth to ensure a smooth finish to the mouldings and improve contact between the stamper and the press die. The edge was then pressed hydraulically to form another lip to clamp the edge down on the press.
The stampers would be used in hydraulic presses to mould the LP discs. The advantages of this system over the earlier more direct system included ability to make a large number of records quickly by using multiple stampers. Also, more records could be produced from each master since stampers would eventually get damaged but rarely wear out.
Since the master was the unique source of the positive, made to produce the stampers, it was considered a library item. Accordingly, copy positives, required to replace worn positives, were made from unused early stampers. These were known as copy shells and were the physical equivalent of the first positive.
The "pedigree" of any record can be traced through the positive/stamper identities used, by reading the lettering found on the record run-out area...

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Два чудесни линка за историята на микрофоните:








^ По отношение на горния линк за восъчните мастер дискове и първите записи - ето как се е записвало навремето оркестър - през рупор на края на който е имало фонограф с вибрираща диафрагма, която е нанасяла чрез трептения нарези върху восъчния мастер диск, от който са се произвеждали 78-оборотните плочи:




Снимки на от времето на микрофоните използващи диафрагма с гранули:






Ето и от мен снимка на подобен модел от витрината от фоайето в сградата на БНР-София:





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У нас (а и не само) микрофони с гранули се наричат въгленови .

Преди десетилетия всеки телефон използваше такива микрофони. Евтини и резистентни на механически въздействия бяха естествен избор за целта. Освен това принципът им е на промяна на съпротивление, който позволява въгленовият микрофон да се свързва директно, без допълнителни устройства в мрежата на телефонните централи. За работата си централите изпращат 60 волта захранване (за нашия стандарт) до всеки телефон, което се използва за комутация на релетата в централата и за захранване на звуковата част на телефоните.


Carbon microphone



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Уникална статия за историята на звукозаписа:





Интересен факт, койтонаучих от статията на списание Протехника е, че Георг Нойман е работил като инженер за компания Reisz и години наред, компанията е

произвеждала и продавала неговия модел Marconi-Reisz от 1925, преди Нойман да създаде собствена компания и да започне собствено производство:






След създаването на компанията си през 1928-ма година в Берлин -  CMV3 е първия модел кондензаторен микрофон, който компанията пуска в продажба, микрофона е известен и като любимеца на диктаторите. Изключително популярен модел, и до днес има стотици запазени бройки от този модел по света производство на Neumann, Telefunken и Siemens :












От витрината в БНР:





Ето и един от следващата ера на динамичните микрофони - запазен MD21в случая на Telefunken, има Sennheiser-и - модела е от средата на 50-те...






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Since the 1960s, Dolby Laboratories has been a leader in audio innovation. Beginning with Dolby® noise reduction, a form of audio compression and expansion that reduces background hiss in tape recording, Dolby Laboratories has developed many groundbreaking technologies, advancing the science of audio reproduction.

Early on, Dolby decided that the company would manufacture professional audio products only, and license technologies that were appropriate for consumer applications. Since then, many Dolby innovations have set the bar for entertainment technology in both the professional and consumer markets.

From the cinema to your living room, Dolby has transformed the entertainment experience. Today, Dolby technologies can be found in cinemas, professional recording studios, video games, laser discs, DVDs, mobile media, digital broadcast TV, digital cable, and satellite systems.

The story of Dolby Laboratories is the story of advancement in entertainment technology. The timeline below outlines the important milestones of that advancement.

A History of Audio Innovation

1965: Dolby introduces A-type® noise reduction for the professional market.

1968: Dolby introduces Dolby B-type® noise reduction for consumer products.

1970: Advent, Fisher, and Harman Kardon begin offering cassette tape recorders with Dolby B-type noise reduction.

1971: Dolby and Signetics create a simplified Dolby B-type integrated circuit, widening the range of products in which the technology could be used.

1975: Dolby introduces Dolby Stereo®, a highly practical 35 mm stereo optical release print format.

1977: Dolby receives acclaim with the release of Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, both in Dolby Stereo.

1981: First product with Dolby C-type noise reduction reaches market.

1982: Dolby introduces Dolby Surround, which encodes the two tracks of any stereo source with four-channel surround sound.

1984: Dolby releases Dolby AC-1, its first digital coding system.

1986: Dolby SR (spectral recording) improves analog recorder performance to equal, and in some respects surpass, costly digital recorders.

1987: Dolby Pro Logic® surround elevates the home cinema experience with four-channel surround sound.

1989: Dolby introduces Dolby AC-2, allowing separate facilities to do full professional-quality audio monitoring and dubbing remotely via ISDN lines.

1991: New multichannel audio coding system, Dolby AC-3, announced. Now known as Dolby Digital, its first application is as a sound format for films.

1995: First consumer products with Dolby Digital playback compatibility announced.

1998: First video game with interactive Dolby Digital 5.1 audio launched. Dolby Headphone technology announced.

1999: Codecs featuring new Dolby E for DTV multichannel audio production and distribution debut.

2000: Dolby Pro Logic II technology announced.

2002: Dolby Virtual Speaker technology introduced for consumers lacking the space for a dedicated 5.1-channel playback system.

2005: Dolby TrueHD lossless coding for high-definition video discs debuts.

2007: Dolby 3D Digital Cinema demonstrated to film industry.

2009: Dolby Axon brings 3D voice communication to online games.

2010: First public demonstration of 5.1-channel surround sound on a mobile phone using Dolby Mobile technology. Dolby Surround 7.1 is unveiled for digital cinemas. Dolby PRM-4200 Professional Reference Monitor for postproduction facilities is announced.

2011: Dolby enables 7.1 surround sound for streaming media.

2012: Dolby Atmos™, a new audio platform that changes the experience of sound in entertainment, debuts to the cinema industry. The Dolby Theatre℠, the iconic Hollywood landmark known to the world as the home of the Academy Awards®, is unveiled as the world's stage for entertainment sound.



Може би ще е интересно за хората, които не са работили аналогово да видят тези шумоподтискащи устройства за магнетофони:





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Famous Swiss Tape Recorder Brand To Re-introduce Reel-to-Reel Analog Recorder!




Tape is not and never was dead !

Edited by Parni_Valjak
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33,799,783 + Long Playing Records Pressed Worldwide in 2013! (Total Updated 2/13/14) !!!






Edited by Parni_Valjak

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Една разходка  в завода на английския производител на грамофони  SME !


2007 Tour of SME (with Brian Laker, Sales and Service Manager) British precision audio manufacturer of turntables and arms plus aerospace and defense parts. Home of "The best pick-up arm in the world."

SME was founded in 1946 by the late Managing Director Mr. Alastair Robertson-Aikman in Steyning, Sussex. Working from a shed at the bottom of his parents` garden he started to make accurate Scale Model Equipment from where the orginal name came. Products then included exhibition scale models and detail parts for the model engineering trade. Engineering sub-contract work followed in the 1950`s for many major high profile companies including Rolls Royce, Hawkers, the MOD etc., also experimental work for the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and the atomic submarine industry with MOD and AID approval being held.

After making a prototype pick-up arm for his own use ARA then went into production of the Series 1 in 1959, the rest is history. Subsequently the company name was abbreviated to SME Limited. Ever since the success of the Series 1 the company has gone from strength to strength , always forward thinking and always eager to use the latest materials and technology to their best advantage. The culmination of all those years of experience is the magnificent Model 30/2A, bristling with unique ideas and hi-tech materials and this analogue statement now sells itself as there is always a waiting list and it comes with a reputation that is second to none.

Even after over 50 years at the helm Mr. Robertson-Aikman informally known as "ARA" still oversees the day to day running of the current SME factory which he built in the sixties and it still produces almost every component "in house". Facilities commence with CAD/CAM design and toolmaking and continue through to all aspects of manufacturing including conventional and CNC machining, pressure diecasting, injection moulding, metal finishing, electro-plating, anodising, enamelling and many other ancillary operations.

Inspection at every stage of manufacture and assembly is particularly critical and ensures the consistent standards for which SME is noted. This has now been formally recognised by The British Standards Institute after successful assessment of the Company`s Quality System and the award of "Registered Firm" status under BS EN ISO 9002 : 1994, and also by the Ministry of Defence with D.C.L. approval number 5KWS01. The "in house" approach and total dedication to quality is quite exceptional and is supported wholeheartedly by the fifty strong workforce. With 100% inspection including co-ordinate measuring machine facilities, every minute detail is important.

The factory is now regarded as one of the UK`s premier small engineering facilities crammed full of high-tech precision CNC machinery from such manufacturers as Frech, Arberg, Hardinge, Emco, Mori Seki etc, and an EDM mould making facility. The on site facilities also include an electro-plating shop, with copper, nickel, chrome, black chrome, gold and anodic processes amongst others. Cosmetic finishes are obtainable using linishing, polishing, vibratory finishing and vaqua-blasting. Precision sub-contract work now extends to Rolls Royce Cars, British Oxygen, Parker Pen, Ford Research & Development, Williams & Renault Formula One teams and Phillips Medical Systems, just to name a few. On site facilities also include stove enamelling and pad printing, in fact just about everything you need and more, to make a complete range of precision turntables and tone arms.





Edited by Parni_Valjak
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Лентата и виниловата плоча не са умрели като носители, те все още се използват за звукозапис и разпространение. Много изпълнители издават все още албуми на винил, като възможност за ценители и колекционери, а магнетофонната лента се използва изключително като елемент от процеса на звукозапис в много студиа като многоканална система по време на звукозаписната сесия, или стерео мастеринг носител на вече изпринтения готов микс. Някои студиа използват магнетофоните за прекарване на записаните преди това дигитално тракове за "стопляне" ( обогатяване с хармоници) на стерилния дигитален звук, използване на естествената компресия или сатурация на лентата в зависимост от това което се търси като ефект. В студиото в което работя, прилагам понякога тези методи доста успешно за музикални продукции.


Иска ми се обаче да посочим и някои останали във времето носители, които или са мъртви или са със затихващи функции. Мисля, че трябва да им се обърне внимание, най-малкото защото дълги години достойно са служили за времето си. Аудио звукозаписната система Phillips-Miller, използваща оптична лента (известна като Philimil "филимил") е изобретена от американеца J.A. Miller през първата половина на 30-те години на миналия век , лицензирана и пусната в производство и продажба от Philips. Дълги години, докъм средата на 50-те, когато е заменена от магнетофона е била основно средство за записи и излъчване от радиата по света, до края на Втората световна война, когато Philips, спира производството на въпросните апарати:






R. Vermeulen "The Philips Miller System of Sound Recording" Philips Technical Review Vol 1 (April 1936): 107-114

"In the Philips-Miller method, as in the photographic sound-film processes, a sound-track is recorded on a strip of film. However, this is not done by optical means as hitherto, but by mechanical means. The film material, the 'Philimil' tape, consists of a celluloid base, which in place of the usual photographic emulsion is coated with an ordinary translucent layer of gelatine about 60 microns in thickness, on which a very thin opaque surface layer about 3 microns in thickness is affixed.

"Perpendicular to the tape, a cutter or stylus shaped like an obtuse wedge moves in synchronism with the sound vibrations to be recorded. This cutter removes a shaving from the gelatine layer which is displaced below it at a uniform speed. (...)

"Now if the cutter moves up and down in synchronism with the sound vibrations to be recorded (perpendicular to the tape), a transparent track on an opaque background will be produced on the moving tape whose width will vary in synchronism with the sound vibrations.(...)

"The recorded sound is reproduced by the usual method employed in optical sound-film technology. The film carrying the sound-track is moved between a photo-electric cell and a small, brightly illuminated slit (transversal to the direction of the motion of the film). The intensity of the light falling on the photo-electric cell thus varies with the variable width of the sound-track, and the resulting current fluctuations in the photo- electric cell are amplified and passed to a loudspeaker.

"The Philips-Miller system is thus a combination of a mechanical recording method with an optical method of reproduction. This unique association offers distinct advantages over the methods hitherto in use


Дълги години, този носител и система е използван и в БНР в годините преди и след войната - ето и снимки от витрината във фоайето на сградата на "Драган Цанков":






Намерих и една много интересна снимка вероятно от работен процес точно в БНР с Филимил апарати ( ако не се лъжа):




Източник е фейсбук страницата на Музея на историята на радиото в България, който се интересува може да я разгледа и хареса ако желае - има много интересни кадри, не е зле и да се посети самият музей, който е уникален по рода си с постоянната експозиция в него.



Edited by Telerig
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Не може да не отдадем заслуженото и на един от най-разпространените дигитални носители, който живя повече от 20 години и бе използван широко в света на звукозаписа - DAT (Digital Audio Tape) касетата. В годините, когато хард диск устройствата нямаха този капацитет който имат сега, ДАТ касетата вършеше работата на носител за съхранение на дигитално записаните мултитрак сесии или стерео мастерите, предназначени за фабриките за производство на носителите за разпространение (CD). Официално представен от Sony през 1987 и спрян от производство до изчерпване на количествата през 2005-та. ДАТ формата продължава и до днес все още да се намира като носител, и ДАТ плейърите все още съществуват като опция в някои студиа. Разбира се със своите възможности - 32,44.1 и 48k/16bit, както и трудната възможност за редакция и монтаж и микс,  ( въпреки, че има рядко срещани 24 битови рекордъри на по-високи семплиращи честоти) ДАТ-овете не могат да предложат алтернатива в съвременния свят на аудио-софтуера и скоро ще изчезнат в небитието. Но все пак нека кажем няколко думи и за тях: 


ДАТ касетите произвеждат точно копие на оригинала без загуби, поради unlossy формата си, 120 минутна касета съдържа 60 метрова лента, като основните опции на пазара са били от 15 до 120 минути, но е имало и по-дълги като времетраене, макар, че над 60 метровите касети са давали проблеми в рекордърите поради това, че лентата се е налагало да се прави тънка. ДАТ-овете обаче далеч не са от първите дигитални носители, до колкото прочетох из интернет, създаването и разработките на цифрови - аудио рекордъри започва още в края на 60-те години с използването на PCM (pulse code modulation) от съвместната работа между Denon и Японската NHK Broadcasting организация. 


Двуинчова дигитална Quadruplex аудио-видео лента от началото на 70-те създадена от Denon и използвана за Мастер носител за производството на винилови плочи:




16 битов, четири канален портативен рекордер работещ с честота на дискретизация 50 kHz, създаден от компанията Soundstream - 1977-ма година:



Има и доста други, но общото е, че както и при тях, така и при DAT касетите е необходим трак за SMPTE тайм код, който е необходим за синхронизацията. Единият плейър/рекордер е водещ - другите плейъри и машини се синхронизират по него. 


Ще си позволя да покажа няколко снимки от Студио 2 на БНР, в което все още стоят DAT машините, тъй като имаше до скоро все още много звукозаписни сесии, които се пазеха на касети. Скоро обаче тези машини ще бъдат премахнати. За хората на които им е интересно как се правиха записите и миксовете през 90-те години ще добавя, че миксовете и автоматизацията се правеха по тайм код, който както казах се подаваше от първия плейър и софтуера на смесителния пулт, който е с микропроцесорно управление на усилването и mute функцията на каналите и другите плейъри се синхронизираха по него. В последните снимки се вижда и стерео DAT рекордъра, също производство на Sony, както и 8-каналните мултитрак рекордъри. На първите се вижда и дистанционното за управление на многопистовите машини:




















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От фейсбук страницата на музея за история на радиото:


"Няколко децелитни грамофонни плочи от Златния фонд на Радиото, на които са записани моменти от звучалото в българския ефир по време на Втората световна война."





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The Story of the Focusrite Studio Console

Having developed modules for the world's leading mixing consoles, the company's first recording console, the Focusrite Forté, was launched, before a streamlined version called the Studio Console was put into production. Only 10 Studio Consoles were ever made, and six remain in operation to this day -- the documentary tells the stories of these consoles and the people who used them.


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Лекция на Rupert Neve at The Conservatory of Recording Arts and Sciences 2001


Много важна лекция, обхващаща сериозни въпроси, които всеки човек, занимаващ се със музика, звукозапис, звукотехника и всичко , което има общо с това е длъжен да види и разбере! 

Познаването на английския език е задължително, за да се схване правилно разказаното от Rupert Neve.

Филмът е почти 2 часа (1:57:14) и не е за хора, които са повърхностни!

За мен си заслужаваше всеки момент от него.


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Серия от 17 обучаващи филми - за начинаещите смесителни инженери.

Guide To Mixing






Edited by Parni_Valjak
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